We all want student participation. After all, we know that students who are more engaged are more likely to succeed in class.
At a recent Humanities department meeting, this commitment to participation was clear when my colleagues shared their grading schemes. For many, participation weighed somewhere on the order of 10-25% of students’ overall grades. Most used a rubric that prioritizes behaviors like eye contact, having materials for class, and active listening. But I wondered: what skills are participation tied to? And how does participation move away from a teacher’s subjective impression over the course of a semester, to helping support student growth and engagement?
Thanks to Sandi Novak and Cara Slattery‘s presentation at the ASCD conference in New Orleans this past summer, my subjective impression of student participation has shifted to a skills-based focus on the skills of Speaking and Listening.
The key to this shift has been disentangling the Common Core standards on speaking and listening into manageable bits, directly teaching key skills, and providing students with plenty of opportunity to practice and to receive immediate feedback.
Now, instead of “Participation” as a grading category, my students are assessed as speakers and listeners, with discernible skills like Challenging Ideas and Presenting & Analyzing Evidence. And, rather than leading most class discussions, I now observe, providing feedback to students with rubrics and checklists that measure their progress. Moreover, students are empowered to measure their own progress, and to reflect on their own growth.
As I work to put together a presentation for my colleagues on digital publishing, I can’t help but be struck by how emphatically all of the national standards demand that we give students the opportunity to publish:
Creativity and innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology.
Common Core ELA CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.6:
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
Curriculum and instruction for 21st century learning prepares students to become expert users of technology, able to create, publish, and critique digital products that reflect their understanding of the content and their technological skills.
What strikes me looking at these standards, is that they are content-area neutral: all teachers and all courses must provide students with the opportunity to allow students to publish.
And I can’t help but understand this emphasis on student publishing and creativity when I reflect on my own practice, moving students from content consumers to content creators.
So what strategies can work to help all teachers empower students to publish? A few ideas I’ve employed are…
- of course, Kathy Schrock is the infographic Guru
What tools and strategies have you used to help students publish for a real-world audience? Clearly, it’s time to get publishing.
Flipped instruction is everywhere these days… but how does that translate into the English classroom? When I first learned about flipped instruction, I assumed that it was a natural fit for content-heavy courses like science and history, but I struggled to make the flip work in my English course, which centers on skills.
After working to incorporate flipped instruction for a few months in my English courses, the flip works in three areas:
This is the most intuitive and well-documented function of the flip. In the English classroom, it most obviously means vocabulary, lit terms and grammatical concepts, as above. But, it can also mean front-loading activities, like an introduction to a text or unit, or a means to provide materials for synthesis.
Short videos work well for modeling discrete writing skills – using a killer hook, structuring a counter-argument, attacking the prompt – you get the idea. These videos allow students to see me demonstrate a particular skill, and to revisit it as often as necessary. Better yet, these videos serve double-duty when I can link to them as comments in writing feedback for students, providing them with an instant, individualized lesson.
And, the flip works equally well for modeling reading skills. Here, students learn the TPCASTT techinque for analyzing a poem. In another video, students learn how to analyze literature through a critical lens. I can imagine future videos about reading nonfiction texts, satire, or analyzing rhetoric.
Even as a veteran teacher, I still struggle to provide individualized writing instruction. So, using a series of videos, grouping students to receive that feedback, and holding students accountable for integrating those revisions, allows me to achieve individualized results, even in a large class. After grading a class set of essays, I’ll often make a few quick videos to help students with weak areas of their writing, and group students up to work together on those revisions.
What makes it all work?
What makes it all work is keeping students accountable for the materials. In all cases, I ask students to keep notes in their Writing Notebook. Additionally, for most videos, students answer a question or a short prompt at the completion of the video, so they can practice their new skill in advance of class. Finally, I follow up with students in class to check for understanding (and occasionally reteach), using formative assessment tools like Socrative, online discussions, or partner work.
And what do the students think? Unsolicited, in the anonymous class-check ins I give bi-weekly, students report:
I have liked the Vocabulary videos.
Having and taking notes on the mini lesson videos really has helped me understand the different topics that we are learning.
And what surprised me most is that students have picked up on all the shifts that flipped instruction has allowed us to make in the classroom, towards doing. They report that what they like best about our class:
I liked that we work a lot with our classmates.
That it is inclusive and give good feed back on what to do better or what we can work on.
I like starting essays in class and finishing them at home so we get to know the layout and get inspiration.
I am good at asking questions. I’m sure a lot of you are, too. And for most of my teaching career, I’ve actually defined my job as asking questions of my students: questions lead to connections, to critical thinking, to closer examination of one’s own ideas. Over the last year or so, though, I’ve come to re-examine that role. After all, isn’t it students who should be asking questions?
In their 2013 text, Notice and Note, Kylene Beers and Robert E. Probst describe the result of this teacher-centered approach to education, as it applies to student readers:
…we saw… too many readers who finish the page or the chapter and then, rather than express a thought, ask a question, or leap into conversation, look up at the teacher and wait.
I (sometimes) have that silent classroom, filled with students waiting, some eagerly, for me to lead them to my interpretation of a poem, scene, or text. What Beers and Probst propose instead is that we teach students to recognize six significant types of scenes that occur across all types of literature (they call these signposts), and for each scene, to ask a single question. These signposts scaffold the path for students to notice and interpret significant moments in all literature, to speculate, to connect, and to authentically inquire. And, unlike my well-crafted, text-specific questions, these signposts are transferable, which means that they can empower even reluctant readers.
What really excites me about this strategy – beyond fostering independent critical thinking and engagement – is the ability to directly instruct and capture speaking and listening skills as students use these signposts to engage in book talks with a partner. Starting in the fall, I will roll out these strategies to my freshman English students. Each week, I will ask them to record a minute or two of their partner book talk using YouTube Capture, and to share the link with me in their Digital Portfolios. In a non-1:1 environment, teachers could establish a Book Talk station, where students could record conversations at an interval used by the teacher. These captured student conversations can be used
- directly in whole-class discussion following their partner book talks to guide listening and speaking strategies
- to self-assess with a discussion rubric
- to show student growth in literary analysis and speaking and listening over the course of a semester and year.
Moreover, as a teacher, I will be able to hear much more of what my students have to say – and this strategy will give them the opportunity to share the best parts of their discussions.
As I put this strategy into practice, I will update with sample student discussions – and with any further best practices.
In terms of best practices, portfolios are pretty close to the top of the list. The rise of 1:1 and cloud-based storage means that asking students to evaluate, revise and curate their own work is getting easier every minute. And, colleges and employers are increasingly considering students’ portfolios in lieu of traditional applications. At the same time, digital portfolios act to create a positive digital footprint for our students.
So, as an English teacher, I’ve been looking to add digital portfolios to my repertoire for a few years, but have been unable to find the perfect template. Certainly, (and Dr. Helen Barett’s website is the holy grail, but lacks a contemporary template. And, as always, Catlin Tucker shared an enlightening post on portfolios with gorgeous student work examples of end-of-the-year portfolios. While inspirational, I feel reluctant to assign portfolios to students as an additional assignment: instead, I’d like them to be process-oriented, and integrated into our regular class structure, to better capture student learning and growth as it occurs. With a mind towards beginning these portfolios in the freshman year, and allowing students to contribute to them over their high school careers, I hoped for something that would easily be up and running in a 9th grade classroom, while allowing students to create that portfolio habit as they transition beyond.
With those qualifiers in mind, I created an easy-to-use Digital Portfolio Template in Google Sites. While other sites may be glitzier, Google Sites is one of the few that is consistently editable on an iPad, the device my students use. And, unlike other “freemium” sites, it allows the user to embed nearly anything. Instructions for the assignment, and the rubric, are also available to students in the template. I’m excited to see how it works starting in just a few weeks.
Please feel free to make use of this template – and please let me know how it works for you! If you’re curious about book talks – that post will follow shortly.
As teachers, I think we do a lot wrong when it comes to teaching presentation skills. We pack slides full of text, expecting a presentation to stand in for a reading assignment; we fail to cite digital images; and we read from our own slides, rather than from presenter notes. So, when we assign student presentations, we get often suffer a taste of our own medicine: clip art, tacky fonts, illegible slides, and poor speaking technique.
So, for my students’ most recent presentation project, modeled after a TED talk, I took perhaps the most obvious step toward remediating these errors: peer editing our slides.
Before peer editing, I modeled good and bad slides using one deck, The Ten Commandments of Presentations, from the team at Haiku Deck, a highly visual presentation app and webtool, and Writing Short, a presentation by Margot Lester
With this inspiration, students headed home to make their rough draft slides. The following class meeting, we used this Google form to peer-edit these slides and provide feedback:
And the results were fabulous. Check out these before-and-after revisions:
Needless to say, this peer editing step is one that I’ll keep in my presentation curriculum. Additionally, I look forward to using tools like Haiku Deck to model the types of presentations in my classroom that I’d like to see from my students (and colleagues!).
Preparing for a Professional Development session this month, I’ve been compiling ways I’ve used Google+ Community discussions in my high school English classes. Below are my top seven uses. If you have additional suggestions, I would love to hear them and pass them along, as well.
Synchrony. We’ve all seen it as educators. Oftentimes, it is the “Aha!” moment when a particular concept clicks with a student. Increasingly, though, I find that moment occurring in my classroom when students are able to make connections among texts – and between various types of media. Perhaps that’s the result of our students’ increasingly connected world today, or perhaps it’s a result of our ability to increasingly bring a variety of types of media into the classroom.
Today, that synchronous moment stemmed from a Google+ discussion that asked students to consider the interrelationship of Huckleberry Finn, Jane Smiley’s article from Harpers, “Say It Ain’t So, Huck,” and two recent video clips: Richard Sherman’s response to being called a thug after the Seattle Seahawk’s win against the San Francisco 49ers, and the Saturday Night Live clip, “28 Reasons,” spoofing Black History Month. I’ve shared two groups’ responses to the SNL clip through the lens of Smiley’s argument.
What arises from these types of moments, where texts gain meaning from one another, is insight into our culture at large. Moreover, these types of synchronous moments allow students to see the value of these canonical texts in their lives. And, perhaps most importantly, these synchronous moments allow students to navigate the media landscape that composes their lives… all while addressing CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.
My sure-fire way to bring laughter in the classroom is to bring in silly images. Thanks, internet. But one of the challenges of any classroom is allowing students to quickly share the work that they’ve created, to further inform instruction and student understanding. I’ve found that Socrative meets that need, by allowing students to share and contribute their work from any wireless-enabled device. While Socrative is designed as a traditional formative assessment tool, to allow the teacher to quickly poll the class, given that it also allows short answers, I’ve found that it can also be used to spur student creativity and competition.
Enter the Vocabulary Caption Contest. To encourage my students to use their vocabulary words, I’ll pair a silly image (thanks, Buzzfeed!) and a vocabulary word, and ask them to write the best caption for the image. This allows me to review word use as student responses are immediately displayed in the “Live Results” function and gives students the opportunity to practice using their vocabulary words.
Other ideas for Socrative creativity and competition:
- Foreign Language classrooms could write captions, or lines of dialogue, based on images.
- Analogies: History or Science teachers could post an image and ask students to explain how the image is like a given concept
- English class rooms could practice lilterary device creativity on demand: the teacher could post a literary device (ie. metaphor, synecdoche) and ask students to write a sentence using the device about a particular image.
Like most educators, I feel a lot of pressure to be constantly trying out new educational tools that I learn about from colleagues, Twitter, and my Google+ communities (in fact, Ramsey Mussallam posted about this very pressure today). So, today, in spite of its ugly name, and at the urging of my school’s Ed Tech guy, I gave Glogster a try.
Glogster is a visually-appealing, web-based app that allows students to make digital posters that include video, audio and images. The upside is that students can use teacher-made (or teacher-selected) templates to create their work using the “Re-Glog” function.
So why only a “Meh?” As a high school teacher, I found that Glogster is, at best, a substitution activity for teachers who are currently tethered to their butcher paper projects. While it allows students to curate materials, and thereby enhances their research skills, it doesn’t allow students to collaborate on the same document, so effectually, students are tied to collaborating in person, in the classroom. And, the editing interface is a bit clunky. Additionally, Glogster doesn’t allow comments, therefore bypassing the crucial step of evaluation and student reflection. Oh, and it doesn’t work on an iPad. Lastly, is the fee-factor. While many web 2.0 tools use a “Freemium” payment scheme, wherein basic function is available to students and teachers for free, Glogster charges on a per-student basis, as tied to the teacher. So, 10 students are free; 125 cost $99 and 250 students (with up to 10 teachers), cost $399. While I’m not opposed to paying for sound, educational products, I am miffed that Glogster sets the per-teacher student load so low, particularly given the large class sizes in most schools these days.
So, I’m all ears: what are some good, collaborative tools for enabling students to visually share information?